MIMEH is pleased to introduce Cal Freundlich, our Inaugural Emerging Scholar. Cal is a rising junior at Davidson College in North Carolina. He is a Music and Media major and a member of Davidson's Division I basketball team. Cal joined MIMEH on our summer 2018 trip to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where he was "reminded of the responsibility that we, as young people, have to be leaders of our generation and ensure that human dignity and equality are protected." Cal will be scoring the music for the documentary MIMEH is producing based on our trip. In addition, he will be contributing posts to MIMEH's blog and working with established scholars in the field to help foster his desire to become an active agent of social change.
As part of our trip, Dr. Amanda Caleb, MIMEH's educational consultant, provided each student and coach with a journal to be used for reflecting and processing this intensely emotional experience. Cal decided not only to use the journal, but offered to share his thoughts on camera and on our website.
"Here, there is an objective beauty -- the light, the sky, the grass, from a far even some of the structures -- it is painful. The more I think of it the more I feel it is a metaphor. The camp today means something different than it used to, and maybe it's displaying that. Today it means survival, triumph, mourning...the other side of the mountain of forgiveness (that Eva speaks about). But that is today, maybe tomorrow it storms and a whole different side is displayed. But nonetheless, I can't help but think that even in "hell on earth," one can still find beauty."
As I looked carefully through pictures in what was called "Canada," I came across a wall dedicated to a woman named Fela Roze. I looked carefully at all her pictures. She had family and friends all over the wall. One picture caught my eye, three people standing in a line smiling. I read the names and froze. "Fela Roze (left), Bernard Freundlich (middle)..." I walked over to our tour guide.
"Everyone on these walls, did they all, um, were they all victims?"
It felt like a wave. Now I'm sweating, itchy. Freundlich is a common german last name. I find myself wanting to search for more. I also find myself wanting to walk away. Four more pictures. Part of me is saying "don't be dramatic" but another part of me wants to feel. Most likely he's not related to me at all. But what if. But if not, does it even matter?
Seeing my last name under a photograph at Birkenau was perhaps the most important moment of my visit, but not because it created any connection to my past or my family. Seeing that name reminded me what losing someone feels like. What losing one person really feels like. ONE in six million. Numbers don't make you feel, people do, and too often do we focus on statistics when it comes to tragedies. We must not forget the value of one single life.
Written by Dr. Stacy Gallin
Published in the Jewish Link of New Jersey, July 26, 2018
Three years ago, I founded the Maimonides Institute for Medicine, Ethics and the Holocaust (MIMEH) with one goal: “Remember the Past; Protect the Future.” Three weeks ago, MIMEH embarked on a trip to Auschwitz-Birkenau along with the Davidson College men’s basketball team, Holocaust survivor Eva Mozes Kor, and CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Having visited Auschwitz for the first time only a few weeks earlier as part of an academic conference co-sponsored by MIMEH, I anticipated that this experience would be incredibly powerful for these young people. What I was not prepared for, however, was the extent to which witnessing their journey would impact my own life, both as an individual and as a Holocaust educator.
Hope is not the first word most people think of when discussing Auschwitz or Birkenau. Standing on the selection platform and hearing Eva describe how she was ripped out of her mother’s arms and never saw her parents again; walking through barracks filled with human hair, shoes, luggage and other personal effects of those who were murdered merely for being Jewish; touching the scratches in the walls of the gas chamber and realizing the horror that people must have felt when they realized death was imminent—there is no hope to be found in these places. I fully anticipated that I would experience overwhelming feelings of sadness and anger at the end of this trip, just as I had previously. But this trip was different. This trip gave me hope.
None of these kids had any direct connection to the Holocaust or Judaism. Very few of them had more than a rudimentary knowledge of what took place in Auschwitz during World War II. Yet they all voluntarily decided to spend four days of their summer vacation immersed in an intense exploration of one of the most evil periods of human history. As an educator, it’s not often you can see the precise moment you get through to a student. However, from the first moment of this trip I had the privilege of witnessing these young men transform.
I watched as they tentatively met Eva Mozes Kor when they first arrived. Later that evening, I saw them begin to open up and ask Eva questions about her experience. Despite their jet lag, they were all rapt with attention as Eva told her story of survival and forgiveness. Over the next two days, as we toured Auschwitz and Birkenau, these young kids, whom I had watched laugh and joke with each other only a few hours earlier, were completely silent as they reflected on what they were seeing and hearing. I walked with them on the path to the crematoria in Birkenau, when the only sound you could hear was the crunching of rocks beneath their feet. I stayed with them inside the gas chambers as they struggled to comprehend how so many people had been killed in the spot in which they were standing. Some lagged behind, needing extra time to process what they were seeing. Some asked insightful questions and wanted to learn as much as possible. Many cried. All were deeply affected. I saw them break down as they realized for the first time the level of inhumanity of which humankind is capable.
But then I witnessed something extraordinary. I watched them build themselves back up, as individuals, as teammates, as friends and as members of humankind. I watched each of them process this experience in different ways: One young man wrote inspirational poetry in the reflective journals we had given them; another quietly placed several bills in the tzedakah box at the entrance to Birkenau; a group of friends rallied around a student who was having a particularly difficult time after hearing Eva talk about her parents. We lit candles to remember the victims of the Holocaust and took a Pledge to Preserve Human Dignity at the memorial site in Birkenau. The entire group—teammates and coaches alike—recreated the liberation walk taken by Eva 74 years ago, hand in hand, as Eva shouted, “We are free!” Simply put, I saw the best that humanity has to offer.
Since returning from our trip I have been in contact with many of these young men. They continue to process what they experienced three weeks ago in different ways, but the one unifying theme of our conversations is that this trip changed their lives. They now realize why learning about the Holocaust is relevant and important for everyone. In the words of one player, “It’s about human dignity and treating each other with kindness. It’s about standing up for people who need our help. It’s about making sure this never happens again. This is our responsibility, and we owe it to Eva and all the others who died during the Holocaust to keep telling their story and living this message.”
As we move farther from the events of the Holocaust, and first-person accounts of the horrors that took place become more scarce, studies have shown that it is becoming increasingly difficult to engage younger generations. A Claims Conference survey published this past Yom Hashoah in the New York Times showed that the majority of millennials do not possess a basic knowledge of the Holocaust, yet an overwhelming number of these young people believe that Holocaust education should be mandatory. Rather than viewing this as a dilemma, perhaps we need to take it as a challenge to rethink our approach to Holocaust education.
Giving these students the opportunity to experience firsthand the horrors of the concentration camps allowed me to witness the extent to which this trip impacted them both emotionally and intellectually. This knowledge will help MIMEH continue to develop and fine-tune programming for millennials that meets their needs as expressed by the leaders and influencers of their generation. More importantly, their experience gave me hope for the future of Holocaust education and humanity in general. Remember the past; protect the future. Mission accomplished.
On July 8, 2018, Pastor Shannon J. Kershner of the Fourth Presbyterian Church located in Chicago, Illinois gave a sermon in which she focused on the Davidson College men's basketball team's trip to Auschwitz. Holocaust education is a topic that transcends religious affiliation, and this sermon is proof of the power of interfaith education.
Stronger and More Tender “A Spirit Revolution”: A Sermon Series on the Acts of the Apostles
Shannon J. Kershner
Pastor, Fourth Presbyterian Church
Acts 10:1–17, 34–35
Faith, when it comes down to it, is an often breathless attempt to keep up with the redemptive activity of God, to keep asking ourselves, “What is God doing? Where on earth is God going now?”
Biblical Commentary for Preaching and Teaching: Acts of the Apostles
Have you ever had a surprising experience, good or bad, that caused your whole worldview to change or perhaps even caused your whole life to change directions—an experience that made your heart grow stronger and more tender at the same time?
That is exactly what Coach Bob McKillop hopes is happening right now to the young men on his team. McKillop is the head coach of the Davidson College men’s basketball team. Davidson is a Presbyterian-affiliated liberal arts college with an enrollment of around 1,800, located right outside of Charlotte, North Carolina. Those of you who enjoy college basketball would know it due to one of its famous alumni—Stephen Curry. Curry led the team to the edge of making it into the Final Four back in 2008, when he was a college sophomore.
During this week in 2018, however, what happened ten years ago is not the focus for either the coach or the current team. Rather, what matters to them right now is what happened beginning in 1940 and lasting until 1945. You see, Coach McKillop took his entire basketball team from Davidson College to Auschwitz.
In his own words, here is why he believed the pilgrimage was critical:
The volatility of our world right now requires a response informed by both a respect for human dignity and an understanding of what happens in its absence. . . . We are stepping into a moment in time when, for millions, evil seemed to have triumphed and humanity [had] vanished. . . . I want them to understand this experience, for life, and to bring it back here, not just as a lesson but to live what they learned. Our world needs leaders who aim to lead and to serve, . . . guided by human instincts and creative and disciplined minds. We need advocates for, and defenders of, human dignity. . . . That is why we are going. (Bob McKillop, “Grade Point,” Washington Post, 3 July 2018)
I would imagine that over the four days they were there the Davidson College men’s basketball team had some experiences that caused their whole worldview to change. Perhaps as a result of what they learned, what they saw, what they heard from their guide—who is a survivor of that very concentration camp—some of those young men might even decide to study something else or to go into law or advocacy or ministry or, please, politics.
My prayer is that God is using that moment in their young lives to make their hearts stronger and more tender at the same time. That God is expanding their vision about who is family and why that matters. That they are being immersed into the profound importance of both recognizing the dignity of every person and fighting for that dignity to be seen by every person. Now that their journey is over and after they have had time to debrief with each other and with their families, I hope they will write about their experiences, because, as their coach stated, quoting General Eisenhower, “the lessons of ‘indescribable horror’ [that they are learning] remain as urgent and timely as ever.”
The experience of serving in our nation’s armed forces during World War II had a similar effect on my theological hero, the late William Sloane Coffin. As he reflected in a sermon entitled “Why I Became a Minister,” Dr. Coffin claimed that the hellish experience of war, especially that war—the daily experience of seeing brutality up close and personal, of becoming immersed in, as he put it, “the sullied stream of human life”—is ultimately what made him ready for a religious experience. All of what he saw and did led him to begin asking the right kinds of questions—questions that helped him become more open to learn of a deeper reality. Yet as he preached, it still took him a while, even after all of that, to be open to the work of the church.
He said, “One thing I hadn’t realized is that Christians are always the best argument against Christianity.” (He had a way with words.) “I allowed myself to be put off by the churches. . . . It offended my understanding of the gospel to see the churches become protected and withdrawn islands of piety in a sea of social ills” (William Sloane Coffin, “Why I Became a Minister,” sermon preached at Riverside Church, New York City, 5 October 1986). But over time, due to the teaching of bright lights like Reinhold Niebuhr and James Muilenburg, he discovered that even through all of those difficult, demanding, and often awful experiences, God had still managed to tenderize Coffin’s heart and make it stronger. As a result, Coffin felt drawn deeper and deeper into the vocation of ministry, into being one of God’s hard hats for hope as his profession.
I believe Peter had a world-shaking, worldview-changing experience like the basketball players just had, like Coffin had beginning with World War II. Peter’s experience started that day on the rooftop in Joppa and continued when he showed up in Caesarea at the home of the Gentile soldier named Cornelius. As Auschwitz is not the normal destination of a college basketball team and ministering within the Christian church was not how a young William Sloane Coffin pictured spending his one wild and precious life, that Gentile soldier’s home was not at all where Peter had ever expected to travel. It did not fit with the way he was raised. It did not make sense with all that he had been taught about how the world worked. Until he had that strange, strange vision, he never would have conceived of making that kind of a journey.
Listen to how he tried to explain it to the church leadership after the fact, when he found himself in trouble for following it. This passage is later in Acts 11: “I was praying and saw a vision,” he told them.
The heavens opened and something like a large sheet came down, lowered to the ground by its four corners. When I looked inside it, I saw every kind of forbidden creature—camels, badgers, buzzards, bats, crocodiles, lizards, a pig—all the things on the “don’t eat” list in Leviticus 11, part of our holy law. And then I heard a voice that said, “Get up, Peter: Kill and eat.” I knew it was God’s voice. I recognized it. But I just could not do what God was telling me to do. It went against everything I had heard before. It went against everything I was taught, against all the Torah I had memorized and applied to my life, against everything my parents had ever said about faithful living. And then God said, “What God has made clean, you must not call profane.” This happened three times, and then the sheet went back into heaven. (Barbara Brown Taylor’s rendition of Peter’s dream in The Bread of Angels, p. 77, helped me put it into more contemporary language)
That is roughly how Peter himself summed up that strange visual experience. But then, as if that were not enough, after Peter had that startling vision, he came back to himself only to encounter strangers who had been sent by a soldier named Cornelius to take him, a leader in the Jewish Christian church, to Cornelius’s house, someone who was a Gentile, an outsider to the covenant. The whole thought of it made Peter’s knees shake and his stomach upset, and yet he went with them anyway.
Unfortunately we did not have enough time to read the rest of the story today, but know this: even until the very moment that Peter walked into Cornelius’s house, Peter still felt incredibly uneasy and scared about what he was doing. So much so that some of the first words out of his mouth to Cornelius and his family were words of judgment and fear: “You yourselves know that it is unlawful for a Jew to associate with or to visit a Gentile . . .” Yet something suddenly clicked in Peter, for immediately after he made that claim, the purpose of the vision became clearer. Standing there in Cornelius’s living room, surrounded by those he did not believe he was even supposed to be around, it was as if his heart grew more tender and stronger at the same time. His vision was not about food, he realized. His vision, his revelation, was about people. It was about those he could consider a part of the family.
With that new clarity in mind, Peter followed up his statement of distaste with the important gospel word but. Barbara Brown Taylor thinks the whole gospel might swing on that word, that conjunction but. “I was lost but now I’m found. I was blind but now I see.” That one word means that “things can change. [That one word] means we do not always know everything there is to know. [That one word implies] God can still teach us something” (Barbara Brown Taylor’s rendition of Peter’s dream in The Bread of Angels, p. 78).
In the African American preaching tradition, we would add one more thing, though, to that one word. We would add the name of the Holy One, so that the conjunction signaling change also might become a phrase of holy defiance. “But God” would be how we would put it, which is exactly what Peter said. “You yourselves know that it is unlawful for a Jew to associate with or to visit a Gentile. But God has shown me that I should not call anyone profane or unclean.” No, what God has made clean, who God has made clean through the self-giving inclusive love of Jesus Christ, I must never call profane. I must never treat them in a way that makes them feel they are unclean. I must never forget their dignity as people created in God’s image. Then do you know what Peter did? He baptized all of them and said, welcome into the family, and he stayed with them for several days. What a huge worldview shift!
Later he went even a step further. When all of those other church leaders forced Peter to defend his actions, Peter just shouted out “Who was I that I could hinder God?” Those words illustrate just how strong and how tender Peter’s heart had become through that world-shaking, worldview changing experience. And Scripture says when they (the good church folk who were upset with him) heard him say that, they were silenced. I’d like to think, and Scripture bears some witness to it, that because of Peter’s courageous actions, some of his adversaries might have also had a completely unexpected, world-shaking, worldview changing experience too. One that made their hearts more tender and stronger at the same time. An experience that made them change their understanding of what was faithful, that helped give them clarity that what we say about people really does affect the way we think of them and treat them.
Today, as you know, is July 8. I spent July 4 with my family down in Texas, but I have to confess to you that celebration was not my focus. Now, please hear me out before you decide you already know what I am going to say. I promise you I have been trying hard to fight the temptation of viewing the gospel through the lens of my politics in the hope that I can do a better job of viewing my politics through the lens of the gospel. I would invite all of you to join me in that spiritual discipline. It’s harder than it sounds.
But friends, as I fought that internal temptation, one thing that kept coming up time and time again in my soul was a deep grief over all the evidence that we, as a nation, are dangerously close to losing our dream of who we can be together. We might even use Coffin’s words that we are becoming both more immersed and more used to being immersed into a sullied stream of human life.
Down there in Texas I would study and pray over this passage from Acts and then turn on the news and learn just how many migrant children have still not been reunited with their families and how, as the PBS NewsHour put it, many of those who have been reunited are so traumatized by their experience they seem like different kids (PBS NewsHour, 5 July 2018: https://to.pbs.org/2ui9ZFV). With that going across the screen, I kept looking to this passage from Acts and back up to the news dumfounded. What in us, in our national ethos, is making it OK to see these little ones as profane enough that we can treat them that way? I understand that we have to keep our borders safe and strong, but God has told us, Jesus people, what God has made clean we must never call or treat as profane.
Furthermore—and I know our track record is spotty on this one—as people who follow Jesus, we must stop making it OK for anyone to refer to another human being, who is also created in God’s image, in a derogatory way as an animal or as an infestation or as somehow “less than.” If we let that become normal, we forget the lessons that Coach McKillop is trying to teach his basketball players about the critical necessity of advocating for and defending human dignity. I hope you can hear this: that is not viewing the gospel through the lens of anyone’s politics; that is viewing our politics through the lens of the gospel, the good news of Jesus Christ.
The lens of the Gospel declares to us that all the name-calling, all the meanness, all the outright demonization of each other is antithetical to how we have been made and who we are called to be. What God has made clean, which we Presbyterian Christians typically believe means everyone, we must never call or treat as profane, as unclean, as less than. That is the gospel truth, for Jesus went to great lengths to make sure that after he told us we are to love each other as siblings that we knew that commandment meant everyone—“including those most unlike us, those who do not fit, those who upset us and make us uncomfortable” (Walter Brueggemann, A Gospel of Hope, p. 86).
Perhaps we need to start praying for some Peter-like visions these days. Visions that will shake us out of our stupor of normalized apathy. Visions that could possibly change our entire worldview as to who is worthy of being included. Visions that would open up enough space in us for God to make all of our hearts stronger and more tender, more compassionate, more loving—all at the same time.
In the meantime, I think I will send a note to Coach McKillop at Davidson College and ask him if his players would please write up what they learned on their trip to Auschwitz so we might learn from their surprising experience and remember again what it means to advocate for and defend the human dignity of all and the danger that could come if we stop thinking that it matters. For in Christ, God was reconciling the world to God’s self. That is not fake news. That’s the gospel truth. So be of courage, church. And step up. Amen.
Author's Note: Some of the players did, in fact, write about their experience in Auschwitz. You can read their accounts on our blog. Thank you to Pastor Kershner for highlighting the importance of this trip. This sermon can be found on the Fourth Presbyterian Church website: http://www.fourthchurch.org/sermons/2018/070818.html?print=true
This week, we are taking the players we coach on the men’s basketball team at Davidson College to Auschwitz.
The volatility of our world right now requires a response informed by both a respect for human dignity and an understanding of what happens in its absence.
Life, sports, academics and experience have challenged these young men in myriad ways. They have never been tested like this.
On Saturday, we flew partway around the globe to Poland. We are stepping into a moment in time when, for millions, evil seemed to have triumphed and humanity has vanished. We will walk the gas chambers and railroad tracks of Auschwitz with a survivor of Josef Mengele’s inhuman experiments as our guide.
(We will not touch a basketball the entire trip.)
Our work as coaches transcends the field or court — or the classroom.
What keeps me so alive after 29 years of coaching Division I basketball is that our players are not just players. They are human beings and scholar-athletes at a college where we — all of us — nurture and value their development.
Four years ago, I visited Auschwitz on a cold, misty day. As a history major at Hofstra University and a high school history teacher early in my career, I thought I understood the Holocaust. But to smell it, taste it and see the gas chambers, the barracks and the barbed wire up close was life-altering.
We take this trip thanks to the Maimonides Institute for Medicine, Ethics and the Holocaust, and through the eyes of Eva Mozes Kor, a survivor of Mengele’s twin experiments. She will lead the way and tell the story, and our players will feel the incalculable weight of history.
A Davidson professor in German Studies, who is a Holocaust expert, cautioned in a pre-trip conversation with the team that each of them, at some point, will break down — in the camp, in the hotel room that night, on the trip home, back in North Carolina. The emotional tonnage is inescapable.
This is an opportunity for the players to coach — first themselves through this experience, then teammates, as they lean on one another, and then throughout their lives. They will depend on one another emotionally. The trip will require teamwork and togetherness of a new order for them. That is where we find our strength.
I want them to understand this experience, for life, and to bring it back here, not just as a lesson but to live what they learned. Our world needs leaders who aim to lead and to serve, as our college’s mission declares, guided by humane instincts and creative and disciplined minds. We need advocates for, and defenders of, human dignity.
Allied troops liberated the first Nazi concentration camps — what Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower called “indescribable horror” — 74 years ago. He called for members of Congress to come see it, as well as newspaper editors and British leaders. The lessons he sought to impart then remain as urgent and timely as ever.
That is why we are going.
Bob McKillop is head coach of the Davidson College men’s basketball team and the fifth-longest-serving active coach in the NCAA.
New York City | July 23 – August 3, 2018
GLOBAL BIOETHICS, HUMAN RIGHTS & PUBLIC POLICY
Global Bioethics Initiative (GBI), in collaboration with New York Medical College and the Bohemian Benevolent and Literary Association, invites students and professionals worldwide to attend the International Bioethics Summer School hosted by the Bohemian National Hall. Join us for this one-of-a-kind educational opportunity!
Bohemian National Hall, 321 E 73rd Street, New York, NY 10021
A beautiful and iconic building, the Bohemian National Hall (BNH) was originally a Center for Czech and Slovak immigrants and is well known for being a diplomatic, cultural and social center. Grandiosely re-opened in 2008 after a complete and vast restoration, it became the seat of the Consulate General of the Czech Republic, the Czech Center New York and the Bohemian Benevolent and Literary Association (BBLA).
The International Bioethics Summer School Program includes a series of lectures and seminars, field trips, film screenings, and evening events with guest speakers. Click here for information about the summer program.
The faculty of the summer school program is comprised of notable international scholars who will lecture and conduct seminars on various bioethical topics. Please visit the faculty page for more information.
FINAL CONFERENCE FORUM
All participants will present their final papers (written under a faculty member’s supervision) at a conference forum during the final week of the program.
In order to make the summer school program truly global, GBI is offering several partial scholarships to participants from low-income countries. In exceptional cases, provided that funds are still available, the selection committee can award applicants from high-income countries as well.
To apply for a partial scholarship, please include a 300-500 word statement with the rest of your application materials describing how you would benefit from it. The deadline to apply for partial scholarship consideration is July 1, 2018. Partial scholarship applications received after this deadline will be reviewed if additional funds are available. Click here for more details and apply!
Some participants may wish to seek financial assistance or scholarships from their home educational institutions or outside sources to cover expenses.
Following the completion of the program, participants will receive a certificate in Global Bioethics during a graduation ceremony and banquet.
Students may request credits from their home educational institutions. The awarding of credits is at the discretion of each student’s institution.
Please check the housing page for information regarding campus housing. Some participants may wish to make individual housing arrangements using Airbnb or otherrental sources. Housing costs are NOT included in the registration fees.
Summer program participants are responsible for their registration fees, travel arrangements, and accommodation costs.
*The summer program registration fees are 100% tax deductible as GBI is a tax-exempt organization under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. As such, your registration fees are considered donations.
APPLICATION FEE $30 | Nonrefundable
PARTIAL SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATIONS:
DEADLINE: July 1, 2018
EARLY REGISTRATION FEES:
(Once you have been accepted)DEADLINE: July 1, 2018
$950 | High School Seniors | ONE-WEEK FEE: $550
$1050 | University Students | ONE-WEEK FEE: $650
$1150 | Professionals | ONE-WEEK FEE: $750
REGULAR REGISTRATION FEES:
(Once you have been accepted)
Non-U.S. Citizens – DEADLINE: July 1
U.S. Citizens – DEADLINE: July 5
$1050 | High School Seniors | ONE-WEEK FEE: $650
$1150 | University Students | ONE-WEEK FEE: $750
$1250 | Professionals | ONE-WEEK FEE: $850
For more information, click on the links to visit these websites: Global Bioethics Initiative, New York Medical College, Bohemian Benevolent, and Literary Association, United Nations Academic Impact
It’s no secret that we now live in an era of information sharing, and that such sharing not infrequently includes personal medical details. To cite one example: in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica Facebook data scandal, New York Times staff editor Kathleen O’Brien wrote an article entitled “I Can’t Jump Ship From Facebook Yet” (April 14, 2018). The gist of this piece was that parents of children with various psychiatric or rare medical conditions find solace on social media. As she puts it,
For me, user-created Facebook groups for special-needs parents function like a very convenient support group you can check in with as your time-crunched life permits. People share recommendations and advice. They vent about schools, health insurance and daily life. I am not even that active in these groups, but it’s reassuring to hear from other parents, even just online.
This is emblematic of the kind of voluntary release of private medical information that occurs online. Ms. O’Brien has publicly identified her son as autistic. She continues in the article to discuss other people by name and to reveal the rare medical conditions from which their children suffer.
Additional examples of this kind of sharing abound. A casual scroll through one’s Facebook feed frequently yields a number of friends who are, ostensibly in the service of ‘reaching out’ for (or conversely, providing) the kind of support that O’Brien talks about, discussing their own mental or physical health. Everything from insomnia to anxiety to depression to MS to thyroid conditions is fair game on social media. In addition, seemingly innocuous screening tools often pop up, as well as cute quizzes that purport to give various diagnoses or risk assessments.
Add to all of this the various tracking apps – everything from fitness trackers that measure one’s steps to location services that log one’s every move – and it becomes clear that we as a society have voluntarily surrendered vast quantities of information about our physical and mental health to anyone interested in acquiring it. And not just our own information – in the case of Ms. O’Brien and others like her, information about our children.
We are accustomed to thinking of our medical records as private; in fact, there are laws governing this kind of privacy. But we fail to see that once everything is online and out of our hands, it becomes fair game for abuse.
Many people no doubt see this concern as excessively paranoid. What possible use could anyone make of my pedometer information other than to try to sell me running shoes, I might wonder.
But this complacency overlooks the extremely dark history of the way in which medical information has been used in the service of forced sterilization, torturous ‘experimentation,’ and euthanasia and extermination. The most egregious example of this is the Nazi eugenics program, a program that many Americans are unfortunately unaware of.
According to Rael D. Strous, M.D., in his article “Hitler’s Psychiatrists” (Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 2006), “Indeed, perhaps more than other medical specialties, psychiatry and psychiatrists played a pivotal role in the Nazi extermination machine—from the selection, identification, and labeling of mentally ill individuals marked for murder to the actual facilitation and supervision of their eventual murder through what came to be a highly sophisticated and efficient extermination process” (31).
It is important to note the ‘selection, identification, and labeling’ aspect of this process. In order to carry out their program of ‘racial cleansing,’ the Nazis had first to determine who among them were the ‘impure’ individuals who were compromising the ‘health’ of the German populace. They had to determine whose lives were not worth living, and they did so by means of medical records.
It is further important to point out that these cooperating medical professionals most likely did not see what they were doing as problematic. Indeed, they were committed to a cause that made perfect sense to them. Unless we learn about and fully confront the logic of their cooperation, we cannot recognize the same impulses at work in our society today.
Again, according to Strous, “Many of the scientists were acting according to what they considered to be the genuine interests of society,” and “all psychiatric institutions readily acquiesced in the request to provide lists of those who were hospitalized for over five years, criminal mentally ill, or not employable” (32).
Thus, we see two significant points here: first, that medical professionals thought what they were doing was right, and second, that they made use of medical records to make their determinations.
It might therefore be prudent to ask ourselves whether it is really harmless to have surrendered data about our mental and physical health to forces we cannot identify. The Cambridge Analytics breach permitted the political campaign of Donald Trump to obtain this kind of information. That means that the current government can, if it so desires, compile lists of U.S. citizens with various self-identified medical conditions. Presumably, our government might know what medications we take, what our blood pressure readings and cholesterol levels are, and what kind of risk for dementia we have. And that is just one stakeholder that we are aware of – all kinds of other entities may have this data by now.
What prevents them – or anyone – from deciding that, for the good of the society, we cannot use limited resources to maintain the lives of people whom they determine to be non-productive or potentially harmful? It is now too late to erase the digital footprints we have left all over the internet; it might behoove us to start thinking about both our future behavior and ways to protect ourselves from potential abuses.
Beyond that, though, we must be wary. We must be on our guard for any signs that our nation is going down the path that the German people so blithely traversed in the 1930s. Are there signs that this is happening? What might they look like?
I would suggest that there are three. First, there must be a nationalistic movement that seeks to return to an imaginary Golden Age and that defines the ‘true’ members of the nation in specific ways that marginalize vulnerable populations. Second, there must be a sense that economic resources are limited and cannot be ‘wasted’ on unproductive members of society. And third, there must be ways of identifying and categorizing ‘undesirable’ persons such that they can be targeted for discrimination.
I have suggested here that the third point is already very much in play, and that we have identified and categorized ourselves voluntarily, making it extremely easy for unscrupulous parties to sort us for their own ends. This is already happening. I believe that sufficient evidence for the first two conditions exists as well, but that is beyond the scope of what I address today.
At the very least, we must, as I’ve suggested, be cautious about sharing our personal medical information and be on our guards as to ways that it could be abused. And in order to convince the younger members of our society of this potential danger, it is absolutely essential that we teach them about the eugenics movement and its role in setting the stage for the Holocaust. We ignore this history at our peril.
Nancy Rehm spent 31 years teaching in the Pennsylvania public school system. She has taught everything from first grade through college. The last 22 years of her career were spent at the high school level, where she created and ran a unique integrated humanities program for gifted students focused on connections among various disciplines, including literature, philosophy, history, science, and the arts. She has certificates in both secondary English and K-12 Special Education, and holds a Masters Degree in Special Ed. An artist and a writer as well, she now lives in Dallas, PA.
MIMEH's Guest Blogger Series first in a series of new initiatives to meet the challenges of modern Holocaust education
The results of a recent study published in the New York Times confirm that there is a lack of basic knowledge regarding the Holocaust among most Americans. The study also showed that the vast majority of people believe that Holocaust education should be mandatory. MIMEH firmly agrees with this viewpoint, and we are actively working towards the creation of materials that can be used as part of a required curriculum on the Holocaust.
We also recognize that large-scale change takes time. Our challenge thus becomes figuring out how to bridge the gap in Holocaust education while working towards a mandatory inclusion of this topic within educational systems. MIMEH is committed to meeting this challenge head on by developing new and innovative methods for ensuring that the memory of those who perished during the Holocaust is not forgotten, but rather serves as a reminder of what can happen when we don't respect the basic human dignity inherent in all people. Understanding the role of medical ethics during and after the Holocaust is an essential part of our mission of reflecting on the past to protect the future.
In the coming weeks and months, MIMEH will be introducing new initiatives aimed at reaching a broader audience. Our goal is to transcend the traditional barriers of Holocaust education - age, religion, geographic location, etc. - to provide resources and materials for ALL people. We will begin by introducing a guest blogger series where people who are interested in this topic can contribute blog posts for possible publication on our website. This will provide a forum for both academics and laypeople to engage in a respectful discourse on the topic. It will also allow for an examination of the nuances of medical ethics during and after the Holocaust.
Our first guest blog post, "The Importance of Teaching the Holocaust in the Information Age" explores the relationship between the use of medical records to label and persecute people during the Holocaust and the potential dangers that accompany revealing private medical information on social media and other internet forums. Look for this blog post to be published in the next few days. We hope it inspires you to join the conversation.
This is an interesting article on the impact of Schindler's List on the memory of the Holocaust. MIMEH recently co-sponsored the conference, "Medicine Behind Barbed Wire" in Krakow. The trip included a visit to Schindler's Museum and a lecture by Aleksander Skotnicki, author of the book, "Oskar Schindler in the Eyes of Crakovian Jews Rescued by Him," which was attended by one of the people Schindler saved.
A new study published in the New York Times revealed some alarming facts about Holocaust education:
Read the full article by Maggie Astor here:
The Maimonides Institute for Medicine, Ethics and the Holocaust is proud to announce a partnership with CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center, effective February 1, 2018. CANDLES is a nonprofit organization founded by Holocaust survivor, Mengele twin, and forgiveness advocate Eva Mozes Kor whose mission is to shine a light on the story of the Holocaust and Eva Kor and to illuminate the world with hope, healing, respect, and responsibility.
Ms. Kor's experience as a survivor of Mengele's twin experiments offers a firsthand account of the ways in which the medical community participated in the dehumanization and torture of millions of innocent people during the Holocaust. We hope to share Ms. Kor's story to help people understand the importance of studying the Holocaust as the historical framework for current issues in modern bioethics, health care policy and medical practice.
MIMEH and CANDLES will be joined in this important endeavor by Misericordia University's Center for Human Dignity in Bioethics, Medicine, and Health.